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Bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines protect against 66% of HPV-associated cervical cancers, and a new nonavalent vaccine protects against an additional 15% of cervical cancers.

However, vaccination policy varies across states, and migration between states interdependently dilutes state-specific vaccination policies.

Therefore, both cervical cancer incidence and expenditure can be substantially reduced if the states coordinate policies to promote expansion of coverage, particularly for the new nonavalent vaccine.

Every year in the United States more than 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer, a disease principally caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).

But Rhode Island health officials have held firm, believing they can increase the HPV vaccination rate in a state that already boasts the highest rate in the nation.“Our goal is that, over time, parents will become comfortable and familiar with the benefits of this vaccine,” said Dr.

Nicole Alexander-Scott, Rhode Island’s health director. She noted that the hepatitis B vaccine, given to babies, also protects against a sexually transmitted disease.

C.) for any childhood, adolescent, or college-aged population. In a comparison of requirements eight years after publication of a routine Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendation, hepatitis B vaccine was required in 36 states and D. C., meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 21 states and D. The novelty of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series in the adolescent schedule may present additional challenges.

The researchers identified the earliest date that a requirement, if applicable, took effect for each vaccine in every state and the District of Columbia (D. A third requirement will take effect in Rhode Island in August 2015. "Why HPV vaccine requirements have not been more widely implemented is unclear, but may reflect reluctance among states to revisit the contentious political climate surrounding requirement proposals in 2006-2007.

“It would be hard for lawmakers to enact a policy that has 21 percent support,” Brewer acknowledged.

More than a third of girls in the target middle-school age and half of boys had not been given the vaccine as of last year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which is shooting for a rate of 80 percent by the end of the decade. Virginia in 2008 became the first state to require schoolchildren to be vaccinated for human papillomavirus.

The District of Columbia followed suit in 2009, and Massachusetts and other states have forged ways to make the shots free to anyone who wants them, without requiring it for students.

An examination of state vaccination requirements for adolescents finds that the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is currently required in only two states, many fewer than another vaccine associated with sexual transmission (hepatitis B) and another primarily recommended for adolescents (meningococcal conjugate), according to a study in the July 14 issue of JAMA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that 38 percent of adolescent girls and 14 percent of adolescent boys had completed the 3-dose series in 2013. Vaccination requirements were more common for hepatitis B vaccine (47 states and D. C.), and meningococcal conjugate vaccine (29 states and D. The recent approval and recommendation of a 9-valent HPV vaccine offers a new opportunity to consider all strategies shown to promote high vaccination rates, including school requirements," the authors write.

Eight years after HPV vaccines were first recommended in the United States, vaccination coverage is substantially below the Healthy People 2020 target of 80 percent. Recent efforts to address these deficits emphasize that HPV vaccines should not be viewed or treated differently than other routinely recommended vaccines, according to background information in the article.

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